Coffee or Cocktail? For African-American Neighborhoods, is the coffee shop the desired ‘third place’? On a lazy Saturday afternoon I found myself channel surfing, landing on the popular T.V. show Friends. Taking a much-needed break from reality T.V., I was again entertained by the sitcom; an actual script with real characters and timed jokes. As I watched I thought about the set of Friends – set in New York City, the characters'  local coffee shop was just as much a character as the people themselves.  The coffee shop Central Perk was the characters' Third Place. The Third Place in the planning world is that place where people gather in addition to their first and second places – home and work. This often translates to your favorite coffee shop, book store, or lounge.

As I watched the cast of Friends split their time between their New York apartments and the fictional coffee shop Central Perk, I thought about other ensemble cast shows of the era  and remembered that they all had their own third place that played its own ‘part’ in the show. However those places where distinctly different between all white or all black casts...hmmm....


Who can forget the coffee shop (and Jennifer Aniston haircut) that started it all!


The cast of Seinfeld often gathered in the fictional Tom’s Diner,  squeezing into the same booth show after show.


Who can forget the diner where relationship war stories were shared. Enough said.


Café Nervosa was the backdrop for the quirky psychologist, his brother, and friends.

For shows with African-American casts, the third place was a bit different. It wasn't the traditional coffee shop or diner, it was often the after hours spot. (And just a note, photos of these places were more difficult to find, hints that they were less of a 'character' on the show.)


 Martin, his crew, and his alter egos, often spent time at the fictional Nipsy’s Bar after work.


Throughout the seasons, Joan and her Girlfriends often relaxed over wine and good laughs at cool night spots.


And who can forget the dope musical performances at the end the New York Undercover episodes. Well the name of the fictional bar was Natalie’s and it was owned by a character played by Gladys Knight. This portion of the show was so popular that a soundtrack was released during the show's earlier seasons.

So, Coffee or Cocktails?

I had the opportunity to sit in on a focus group in a historically African-American part of Nashville, TN to discuss development opportunities. When pressed for what type of amenities they would like to see in the area, all agreed that a sit down restaurant to relax in the evening with family and friends was the way to go. So that got me thinking…what is the third place in African-American neighborhoods? Is it always the revitalization darling the coffee shop, or something else? If we can answer that question, perhaps we can find a revitalization solution that works for African-American, or other minority, consumer markets.

Culturally Relevant Places

This brings me to the question of, what types of amenities could enhance a sense of place in minority neighborhoods? Google "Culturally Relevant Place Making" and you won't find much. It's not a buzz-phrase in planning circles as of yet, but it ought to be. Cultural Place Making is identifying what creates a sense of belonging for a particular demographic. Identifying what is culturally relevant in terms of the urban environment, could ignite a stronger connection to one's community. Organizations like the Latino Urban Forum are bringing attention to this concept by engaging minorities in the planning process to help them identify what ignites that sense of belonging.


If you had a preference of the 'Third Place' what would you choose - coffee or cocktails?


What ignites your sense of belonging in your community? 

On a random Thursday night, my husband and I decided to try a new spot that a family member recommended. In the neighborhood called Cleveland Park on the east side of Nashville, the restaurant called The Pharmacy, has been serving up great hamburgers for the past several years.  As we walked through the door past a waiting crowd, my husband commented that in the late nineties we wouldn’t be just casually walking around in this part of East Nashville. Since that time however, this corner of Cleveland Street and McFerrin Avenue and the neighborhoods around it have undergone significant change. I have to believe that the two restaurants, The Pharmacy and its sister restaurant The Holland House, had a little bit to do with that. Image

In neighborhoods across the country, small coffee houses and local restaurants boasting ‘local food’, are creating momentum in up-and-coming neighborhoods. As I’m writing this article I sit in Portland Brew in East Nashville, the cornerstone of a growing neighborhood center that includes a local Mexican restaurant, a vegetarian spot called the Wild Cow, and growing residential development; and it’s not just an urban thing – its also happening in suburbia.

In the community of Antioch, a suburb 15 minutes southeast of downtown Nashville, sits a local restaurant called 360 Burger. Opened during a time when the regional mall and other big box retailers were going out of business, the restaurant was a sign of hope for a community hard hit by the recession. Across the way in the defunct regional mall, new mall owners began advertising new food court selections from local international food vendors before new retailers, hoping that food would be the natural attractor for new customers.


So the question is, in revitalization strategies should local food be the common thread?

I think so.

Even in the worst parts of a city where disinvestment is wide spread, it’s often the local restaurants that stick around. They stay in business by serving the people that had to remain, and the people who travel back to a dissolving area for some ‘food nostalgia’ – especially if the food is exceptionally good.  So how do we include food in the revitalization strategy – here’s what I think:

Urban planners and city officials should work with local restaurateurs to identify areas where potential restaurants could open and target those areas for revitalization strategies answering questions like - Where is there potential for foot traffic? Can vacant retail spaces be outfitted for new restaurant space? Once those areas are identified, traditional housing strategies (infill and affordable housing) should be focused in those areas.  Urban planners and city officials should work with food entrepreneurs to develop appropriate incentives and fast track approval processes that would assist restaurateurs with a speedy opening.

Similar to the food truck movement, where food entrepreneurs can test new and fun concepts without the risk of a brick and mortar location, a “mobile test kitchen” program should be created to test food concepts in different neighborhoods. This way, restaurateurs can test the market before making large financial risks. Similar to this idea, local chefs are testing out concepts at local farmers' markets and through local non-profits. One such program and test kitchen is operating at Casa Azafran, a community center for Nashville’s growing international community. Similar programs but with business planning and loan assistance may be beneficial in helping a business owner go from testing phase to reality a lot quicker.

Food Truck

Finally revitalizing communities should market existing restaurants online and through social media in order to attract others. If business owners see that there is support of the existing food scene in an area, the perceived risks of opening may be eliminated.

Food always brings people together and I firmly believe that food can also bring communities together.  I encourage urban planners, city officials, and community organizers to really tap the food entrepreneurs in your community to see how we can harness the energy of the local food movement and neighborhood revitalization to effect real change. Food, unlike retail which can and has moved to an online marketplace, will always require a physical location that people can travel to, to see, smell, and consume their food. And its not always about eating, it’s about social interaction, and a sense of community. We would be foolish not to understand the power of this and pay more attention to food’s role in our communities.

Don’t believe me? Well, just chew on that the next time you follow a food review to a 5 star restaurant in a derelict part of town, and wonder ‘why’d they locate here?”. They saw potential and well, the neighborhood will benefit in the long run.


Local restaurants have been a part of the revitalization scene in Nashville for years. These restaurants opened in neighborhoods at a time when the market was lukewarm because they saw potential. Here’s a few to name:

Germanton Café – Germantown

Marche Artisan Foods – East Nashville

Mafioso’s – 12th Avenue South

Taco Mamacita – Edgehill Village

Watermark and Rusans – The Gulch

The Garden Brunch Café – Jefferson Street

360 Burger – Antioch


Food for thought: What’s the food scene like in your city?



Check out cable TV any night of the week, and you’ll find a home-flipping or renovation reality show. That world seems very alluring – buy a home, put in the work, and reap big profits. Or find a client, throw a fabulous open house, negotiate, and reap the benefits. I'm sold! Sign me up!!

But not so fast little urban planner; investing in residential property whether as a primary residence or investment property – takes know-how and capital. This is where a realtor comes in. A realtor can help any first time buyer or investor navigate the world of real estate and financing. A realtor with investment experience can also help a buyer/investor make a sound financial decision. As cities and communities see resurgence, the real estate market will also grow, creating opportunities for building wealth. So if you’ve ever thought about diving into the world of real estate or investing, this post is for you!

In June, I sat down with realtor and investor Damani Maynie, in an up and coming area of Nashville called Edgehill, to talk about his own adventures in investing.  Like many of my CitySpeak interviews, the conversation took a very inspirational turn, as his personal investment experiences revealed some powerful testimonies.

Damani, the city is always speaking. What is it saying to you? 

Well, Nashville is becoming a hot place, for professionals and for those in music. And Downtown is really taking off.  But even with that progress, we still have a long way to go in terms of becoming a major city. But I think the efforts of this mayor and the past mayor has aided that. So what the city is telling me is that there are many opportunities for new businesses, and for family and individual economic growth. I think there is a market for retail growth within neighborhoods, especially for places on the outskirts of the city.  I think Nashville and the inner core has got the idea of walkable neighborhoods, parks, and amenities, but I would like to see more of that in places like Antioch, Hermitage, Mt. Juliet.

So tell me your story, how did you get into the world of real estate and investing? 

Well, my stepfather was a contractor. I hung out with him during the summers and did construction work.  I did manual labor on older homes but he also gave me the opportunity to design. I also saw an opportunity to make decent money at this; I always had an entrepreneurial spirit, and realized – okay this is something I can do! That’s when I decided to attend TSU (Tennessee State University) to pursue design work. In the meantime I was fortunate enough to secure my first investment and grow from there. So I’ve always loved real estate, investment, and especially design. And in those years I’ve done design, engineering, project management, I’ve invested, and I’ve been a landlord…I’ve done just about everything within the world of real estate! I really enjoy real estate though and my experience allows me to wear many different hats for my clients.

Do you feel any sort of responsibility being an African American realtor? And being African – American what perspective do you bring to your work? 

I guess being African American I feel like it’s my duty to share my knowledge with other African Americans that may or may not know about this world. But as far as the profession, I don’t look at myself as just an African American agent because it’s really about offering the best service. Good service is key, and if you have good service you’ll do well.  And by good service I mean, being knowledgeable, responsive, and having the ability to guide clients to properties that meet their needs, but that are also sound financial investments.  I also have very diverse experiences that I think helps my clients.

Explain that, diverse experiences…

For instance, my investment experience allows me to offer my clients options that can offer equity and room to grow. For example, advising clients to buy a less expensive home and putting in the equity through improvements, instead of buying the home that’s renovated to a ‘tee’ and then paying an arm and a leg for it. And I think this is important in the African American community. Property is a true vehicle to building wealth, for college, retirement.

Edgehill Renovation Before - A true fixer upper...

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Edgehill Renovation After

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Right! For example when I interviewed Will and Sonceria ( “I Live In – An Up and Coming Neighborhood!) I realized that their decision to renovate a home in an up and coming area was a great investment decision… 

Absolutely. In many cases these areas were or are still historically black but many blacks living there are renting, while the property owner lives in the suburbs or out of state. So in many cases we are left out of the loop with regard to profit and sales.

So is this a major concern for you with regard to the housing market?

Yes and broadly, gentrification is a concern. And it’s hard for me because I’m also an investor – one of my primary goals is to make a profit. But I can’t invest in places like Brentwood, so I have to invest in places where I can afford to invest; many of those areas are African American. But at the same time I think it’s good to educate the people who live in those areas, because I feel like a lot of people who live in those areas are getting ripped off. I know a lady who sold her house because a parent passed away, and she would call me whenever someone would call her making multiple offers on her home.  People need to get educated and know their rights. There isn’t any illegal about doing what I’ve described, but the shady part is what they offer people for their homes.

That’s the tough thing about gentrification,  there has to be a willing buyer and a willing seller. So people just need to be educated about the market and the options they may have. I also feel like blacks can help minimize gentrification, by bringing their money and investment to black neighborhoods to maintain the culture and character... 

I agree if young blacks did that they could change the inner city. They need to bring their resources to where the resources are – city services, amenities – because that’s what others are attracted to, the city services.  Many like that fact that they can walk to the park, to the grocery store, and never have to get in the car!  And many people like the suburbs because its family oriented, and there are large lots. However the city is changing, there are family parks, and other family oriented amenities. But the way the city is growing, the Antioch-s and Bellevue-s will continue to grow and those places will become more urban. But all in all, education is extremely important. I try to do that in the communities I work within. I share with owners what their homes are worth, and what other properties have sold for.  Just so people are not tricked by investors. I want people to come to the negotiation table educated.

The Urban Pioneer - Damani's personal home Before...

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Damani's personal home - After

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So tell me about your first experience at the negotiation table; your first investment. 

My first investment helped me go back to school and focus on that. It paid for school, life, everything – it gave me financial freedom. Now that same investment pays for my personal mortgage, family expenses, and it’s allowed me to dive into my real estate career. But it was a great risk – a divine risk.

So what was that risk like? Were you nervous? 

Yea, I was nervous! I had my eye on a small house, but the deed was caught up in the courts. I knew I could flip the house so I could use that money to live on campus. At my age mind you! (Damani was a non-traditional student).  So I wanted a small house but I ended up buying a 4 unit apartment building.  I walked around it and I walked around it, and the units were boarded up, but I went for it. I sent the owner a letter and he called me and said he’d just prayed about selling the building. And so when we went to closing, I didn’t have enough money at closing. The seller at closing wrote me a check for the difference of $1,500. He said, ‘you know what, I like you, I’m going to sell it to you for what I owe and not make a profit’. He was a black man.

This is similar to Will and Sonceria’s story. They bought the house from a black man in Salemtown who believed in them…

Absolutely, it was divine intervention for sure. I lived in one of the units. And that was the blessing. I was going to live in a small dormitory room, but God gave me a whole building! And this building is the cup that keeps on giving!

The Building That Keeps on Giving! - Damani's first investment property


And I knew that I was being led to invest in this property.  I was like ‘I have to do it’. But, there was a point when I almost went into foreclosure. I couldn’t rent it. Another investor in the neighborhood, told me ‘man just hold on, it will always rent – don’t worry.' When he told me that, I had one more month before I was to go into foreclosure. But it finally rented and I never looked back. I knew God didn’t bring me that far to leave me out there like that. It really tests your faith. I was in school, no job and behind on my car payments. But He didn’t leave me. So when I got the opportunity I started buying more.

So what is your goal for your real estate career?

Wow, that’s a big question!  At the end of the day, aside from growing my business, I just really want to help people. I have seen how real estate can impact my life, how it helped me, so I just want to help others be successful.


Damani is now a full time realtor with Village Real Estate.  To contact Damani Maynie visit 

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Damani’s Real Estate Tips

  1. Find a realtor that is responsive. Real estate decisions are often emotional and when you find a property you love, you want to act on it immediately. Your realtor needs to be easy to get in touch with.
  2. When selling your property, make sure you research the market. Don’t fully depend on your tax assessment for property assessments. It’s probably only about 80% of what the property is worth- it’s just for tax purposes. Get a realtor to give you a market analysis. It’s not an appraisal, but it will give you a good sense of what your home could sell for in the market.
  3. If you are underwater, but can pay the mortgage, keep paying your mortgage. Eventually the value of the home will come back. If you just have to get out, contact the bank because they have options. If you want to sell, a short sale (selling the home for less than what is owed) should be your last option because it could disrupt your credit.
  4. Keep an open mind. Sometimes your dream home could be a different housing style, location, or a fixer upper. In all cases lean on your realtor to help guide you through the process.

SpeakNow! - Are you a realtor or investor? What tips would you add to this list? 

The "I Live In!" series provides a glimpse into the different ways that people live in our communities. By understanding how people live, perhaps we get a better understanding of ourselves, our neighborhoods, and cities. For this installment I sought out a resident of one of my now favorite cities (thanks to my husband) - New York City! I caught up with a college class mate Charles Garbareth. I knew of Charles in college but we didn’t formally meet until years later at mutual friends’ wedding. Having been a good friend of my husband, the three of us had a ball at the wedding. Charles kept me laughing the entire time; It was like we clicked! His sense of humor and love of life was contagious; I’m so glad to have met him.


When I heard that Charles was working and living in New York City, I thought he’d be great for this installment of I Live In! I called Charles to conduct our interview over the phone (although a trip to New York would’ve been fabulous!). I was expecting another laugh-out-loud experience for our interview, but what I found was a very chill, thoughtful, and gracious Charles; which I found to be very comforting. He was very happy to speak with me about his ‘humble abode’ and for this humble blogger, I was very appreciative. So on we went with our conversation and it was delightful. I learned more about this home life, and I even learned some surprises along the way….

So Charles I know that you’ve moved to New York from Las Vegas – where in New York do you live?

Well I live in Downtown Brooklyn, and actually, I am living in the Hotel Marriott right now, because I’m in the process of moving to Miami! I’ve only been in New York about six months.

What!? – What made you decide to move to Miami?

Well Miami will be my home base. So I’ll be commuting – about every 15 days I’ll be in New York for work, but living in Miami. I chose Miami because it was away from the hustle and bustle of New York City.

So at this point, as a writer, I thought – well there goes my New York City story! But just like life had taken Charles from Las Vegas to New York, to Miami, I was delighted on where the conversation eventually landed…

Interesting – so you’ve gone from Las Vegas to New York, to Miami. Since you’ve lived so many places this question is extremely relevant to you – what does home mean to you?

Hmm…good question! Home is internal. It’s inside of me. Home is that space that you have to build within yourself; I had to build it within myself, especially with traveling so much. My physical home in Miami however, for me, is paradise. It means rejuvenation, and restoration.


Now, where are you originally from?

I grew up in Fulton Missouri.

So you went from a small city to several large cities – how was that experience?

You definitely have more cultural experiences in larger cities, that’s for sure. In a small town, you just have blacks and whites. But now I’ve experienced almost every culture imaginable! And the food choices - let’s not start on the food choices. I’ve discovered however that my favorite food is Caribbean food.

What is your Brooklyn neighborhood like?

My neighbors are mostly young single people. There aren’t many families in the city. Also commuting by transit is how I get around mostly. But the commutes are great. I usually take the train, but if I have a longer commute I’ll take a taxi or bus.

So in Miami and Brooklyn, you live in very urban “downtown” environments. So many people are flocking to downtown urban environments so we all know they’re great, but I want to know, what’s the biggest misperceptions about living “downtown”?

People don’t realize how far your everyday things are. Sure you’re able to access 24-hour amenities, but if you need daily things like groceries, a light bulb, whatever, it’s so far away. In New York, that is why the bodegas are so popular. They are on every corner, and you can shop in your neighborhood.

There was also some safety concerns in the city for me. Growing up in the suburbs of Missouri, I didn’t have to worry about that. But in the city, people pretty much keep to themselves, so you’re not sure who’s “looking out for you” so to speak. In suburban areas, there seems to be more community, and more people looking out for you.

Another misperception is that people in the city are NOT concerned about development issues; but they are! Like for instance when they built the Barclays Center in Brooklyn, it included chain restaurants and stores. Some of the people in the neighborhood were concerned that the chains would affect the local stores in the neighborhood. People were afraid of the area being improved too much; preserving character was important to them.


That’s interesting – based on the misperceptions you mentioned, do you think you’ll ever move back to the suburbs?

Yes I will, someday. You know I love the small town environment; that’s essentially what raised me and I value that upbringing. (CS: What values?) – well you know, things like a good church and church family, and good elderly people. The elders in my town really inspired my growth. They are wise and are always willing to share, and I can relate to that. Also I’ll be looking for that feeling of safety that is sometimes hard to find in the city.

After living in three very different urban environments, what advice would you have for someone moving into the city?

Know what you want to do and seek a location that will help you thrive in that. For me I wanted to be a public speaker, so I started my career in Las Vegas. And now after being in these larger markets, my career is thriving.

Also, find a place that makes you feel good, and where there are like minded people – you know if you’re a young professional, seek out places that attract young professionals.

If you do these things, you find a place that aligns with your professional goals and that is aligned with your path in life.

And don’t forget – always look for a good view!


SPEAK NOW - Would you live in a DOWNTOWN environment? 

Tifinie Capehart is an Urban Planner and Community Engagement Professional who has worked to engage communities in Nashville TN. To learn about how CitySpeak and Tifinie Capehart can assist your staff in better engaging the communities you work in, contact .

Authortifinie capehart
CategoriesThe Resident

November 2012 Target announced that it was closing the Antioch Tennessee store in southeast Nashville. After weathering several other retail closings and the closing of the Hickory Hollow Mall – a large regional mall in southeast Nashville - the announcement of Target leaving sent a shock wave through the community.  “Save Our Target” petitions, and news coverage of protest outside of the store commenced just days after the announcement.

Unfortunately Antioch TN – a fast growing suburban community in southeast Nashville -  is experiencing what many other communities across America have experienced – Suburban Retail Decline.

What is Suburban Retail Decline?

Suburban Retail Decline is as an urban planning issue that surfaced in recent decades. As retail and development continued to sprawl or “leap-frog” to newer opportunities and as urban mixed-use centers became the entertainment and shopping experience of choice, older suburban retail areas filled with vacant strip centers and dying malls that were left unnoticed. In addition to these common land use trends, social and economic trends also added fuel to this fire. The recession coupled with changing shopping preferences and the over saturation of suburban retail in some markets, made it difficult for older suburban retail areas to survive.

Cause: Suburban Sprawl and Retail Competition

Suburban sprawl and retail competition contributes to suburban retail decline. Retailers and developers overlook existing infill sites (sites with existing infrastructure in a developed area) to develop in greenfield sites (vacant sites where new infrastructure may be needed) in outlying areas. In the case of Antioch TN, retail development leap-frogged to greenfield sites in outlying counties, and impacted the Hickory Hollow retail area’s primary and secondary trade areas.

Hickory Hollow Mall retail area in Antioch TN, reached a primary trade area of 20 miles and a secondary trade area of 40 miles. Within this trade area lifestyle centers with traditional suburban retailers developed. To put 20 miles into context, this primary trade area reaches Murfreesboro TN – a growing city 20 miles south of Antioch TN. When The Avenue lifestyle center developed in the city of Murfreesboro with similar retailers, this impacted Hickory Hollow Mall’s trade area. Similarly, Providence Market Place, a lifestyle center in the growing city of Mt. Juliet TN roughly 15 miles from Antioch TN, also pulled shoppers from the Hickory Hollow Mall trade area.


Cause: The Recession and Changing Shopping Habits

Within this decade, the country experienced a recession. During that time homes and jobs were lost, and as a result, many spending habits changed:

  • Shoppers began to spend money on necessities only. For this reason, grocery and discounts stores such as Wal-Mart, Krogers, and the Dollar Tree are doing well in weak or rebounding suburban retail markets.  Specialty retailers (in Antioch, Best Buy and Pier 1 for example) suffered because those items were not considered ‘necessity’. As a result, many large specialty retailers downsized their store format and/or closed under-performing locations.
  • When shoppers did spend money, it was within a new shopping experience; new mixed use neighborhoods, suburban lifestyle centers, and online shopping. Lifestyle centers – outdoor walkable malls – and emerging mixed use neighborhoods were more appealing than the older indoor mall format. In Antioch TN, when the regional mall began to decline, many Antioch residents sacrificed a 20 minute drive to these new areas, while others shopped online.

The Solutions

There are universal and nationally recognized solutions to the suburban retail decline. They include Re-use, Redevelopment, and Re-greening of existing infill sites.

  1. Re-use includes the re-use of vacant big-box suburban retail buildings. This has been successfully implemented in the Antioch community. Nashville State Community College purchased and re-used a former Dillards. The City of Nashville purchased a former JCPenny and is re-using the building as a park and community center. Several churches in the area have also reused big –box facilities, thus revitalizing dead strip centers. 100 Oaks is a local but also national example of the reuse of dying mall for mixed use center, with medical, retail, and entertainment uses.
  2. Redevelopment includes complete redevelopment of a suburban retail site. Local Nashville example includes the Harding Mall. Harding Mall was a small community mall, that was completely razed and redeveloped into a Wal-Mart.  There are some great national redevelopment examples that set a precedent for redevelopment:
  3. Re-greening includes revitalizing large parking lots with green space. The City of Nashville’s Park, Library and Community Center includes reclaiming three acres of the existing suburban parking lot for a park and walking track.

In all of these examples, public – private partnerships were and will remain crucial to the success of revitalization. In many cases, innovation is also a must have implementation component of these strategies; it takes vision and thinking outside of the box to re-purpose a building or retail site in a changing suburban market.

There are also proactive grass-root steps that suburban communities can take to assist in revitalization efforts:

  1. Maintain an online database of available properties. Work with realtors and local governments to catalog, prep (e.g. appropriate zoning, development incentives), and market properties and buildings for re-use or redevelopment.
  2. Conduct a grass-roots economic and demographic survey. Declining retail areas with vacant and underutilized properties often send the message of indifference and lack of spending power. A grass-roots survey may reveal real market needs, and true spending power.  Survey results may be helpful in attracting new retailers and businesses.  Utilize free tools like Survey Monkey, social media, neighborhood networks and canvasing to get the word out.
  3. Launch a grassroots re-branding campaign. Utilize social media to spread a unified message about the community. Develop a business friendly slogan that builds community spirit and pride.
  4. Support existing businesses. Start a “Shop Local” campaign. Show the businesses that have weathered the storm that you care. Use a free web site creation tool and build a website to list all the local businesses. Doing so will make it easy for residents to find, support and sustain those local businesses.
  5. Start a “Business Watch Program”. Similar to a Neighborhood Watch Program, partner with local police officials to monitor the business district. Use a Business Improvement District – a special assessment district – to pay for additional lighting, signage, and landscaping. Doing so will display a unified effort and will help deter crime.


The residents of Antioch TN must know that they are not alone. Google search “dying malls” or visit and one would find dozens of suburban communities that are facing similar issues.  But many have recovered and Antioch can recover as well.  The first steps are the implementation of the above ideas. The next step requires more long-term thinking about the future of this suburban retail area. Fortunately for Antioch TN, in 2013 the City of Nashville will begin updating its Comprehensive Plan – the guiding plan for the city and county. In this process, the Antioch community can think about its community’s role in the City/County and the Middle TN Region, over the next 20 – 25 years; this process will be key in setting guidance for moving forward.

As of the writing of this blog, the future of the “Antioch Target” is uncertain; petitions are still being signed, and no official word from Target has been issued.  What is certain is that there is an engaged citizenry that cares about the future of this community. Hopefully, this blog will provide Antioch TN and other suburban communities, insight and ideas on how to proactively move forward.

What do you think? Join the conversation and Speak Now by leaving a comment below.

Tifinie Capehart is an Urban Planner and Community Engagement Strategist. Need ideas about how to engage your neighbors in a specific community issue? Start the conversation with CitySpeak at

I attended a community meeting hosted by a Caucasian development team in an African – American section of town. The audience was primarily older African-Americans. The proposal was on the fringe of their neighborhood, a neighborhood plagued with security and disinvestment issues. The developers pitched the idea, but after several uncomfortable exchanges between the development team and the audience regarding density, traffic, and community character, the conversation, and subsequently the development proposal, died. Re-investment that would have occurred in this community, will likely occur in another neighborhood because of a lack of trust and understanding between the Developer and the Resident.

Developers and Residents both play a special role in the growth of our cities and neighborhoods; therefore communication and understanding between the two parties is extremely important. Developers help facilitate progress. Without development, our cities would remain stagnant and void of innovation and growth. Residents are the soul of our communities, populating our cities and administering their many complex and moving parts. When these two entities meet in agreement, the result is often magnificent (e.g. The Gulch here in Nashville, Atlantic Station, Atlanta). However when there is disagreement between the two parties, this can result in a less than perfect project, or no project at all.

The failure of a project is usually caused by the lack of a relationship between the Developer and the Resident. In many cases, the Resident views the Developer as the foreigner, who has no concern for the community or its needs. The Residents however should view the Developer as the change agent or community partner; through that lense, compromise can occur.

Below are tips to help build the relationship between the Developer and the Resident. Following these steps, the Developer becomes the change agent and community partner, and communication with Residents is enhanced; subsequently moving innovative projects forward and creating sustainable communities.

Dear Developer - Become a Change Agent and a Community Partner:

ENGAGE the Community First:

Engaging the community early in any development process provides the developer insight into what would benefit the community prior to concrete decisions being made.

  1. Contact the local Planning Department to contribute to any planning processes that are occurring in the community or neighborhood where you wish to develop. Get involved in the process, and gather feedback while there is a captive audience, or remain involved to capture ideas.
  2. Hold an informal charette with thought leaders in the community. Thought leaders could include trusted colleagues who live in the subject community, local business groups or chamber members, and property owners directly affected by potential development. This will help gather the pulse and needs of the community prior to spending money on preliminary plans.

CONTRIBUTE to the Community:

Leave the impression that new development is going to resolve an existing problem, not exacerbate it.

  1. From the pre-engagement activities, determine areas of concerns for neighbors (e.g. an unsafe intersection, potholes, stormwater issues, new dog park is needed) and determine what could reasonably be resolved. Offer that solution as a component of the development proposal.
  2. Also from the pre-engagement activities, determine what a community needs, not what you as the developer think's the community may want. For instance, don't pitch a coffee shop when the community desperately needs a bank or dry cleaner.  Offering a much needed service will be remembered as a major contribution to the community.

RELATE to Your Customer - the Existing Residents:

Your customer is the existing residents, not your new tenants. Why? - Because any new development should enhance their neighborhood prior to new residents moving in or new businesses opening. Therefore, define your customer (existing residents) and build your communication and marketing strategy to that audience in addition to your end user.

  1. Yes, the multifamily development will cater to 20-somethings, but it’s on the fringe of a historic neighborhood with Baby Boomers. Make sure that your marketing and communication package not only targets the 20-somethings, but the existing residents, the Baby Boomers. As existing residents, they may have a 20-something who needs to move out or they may need to downsize also becoming an end user. Existing residents will also help sell your proposal via word-of-mouth if they see the benefit in it. Build your reputation by your quality of work and consideration of existing residents and conditions; this will build trust for future projects.
  2. When attending community meetings research your audience and be relatable; e.g refrain from using jargon, dress based on your audience, tailor meeting materials and meeting times to specific demographics.
  3. Keep the community (existing residents) engaged during and after the development process; e.g. develop a contact list and inform residents of the development’s progress, or when the solution to a community problem is being addressed. Residents will appreciate the constant contact.

Following these few steps can help enhance communication and trust between the Resident and the Developer. The Resident and the Developer can then work together to find compromise and solutions that help move our communities forward.

Tifinie Capehart is a Planner and Community Engagement Professional who has worked to engage communities in Nashville, TN. To learn about how CitySpeak and Tifinie Capehart can assist your staff in better engaging the communities you work in, contact

Authortifinie capehart
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Everyday people make decisions about where to live; downtown, mid-town, the country, the suburbs. But aside from a good school district, being close to work, or close to parents, why do people decide to live in the house they’ve chosen? And on a deeper level, what does “home” really mean to them?

The I Live In! series will answer those and other questions about housing. This series will also educate you about different types of housing and the respective residents. What’s up with renters - do they really care about where they live? Or what about people who live in the country – why would they dare live so far away from the city! Suburbanites – do you feel like you accomplished the American dream? It is my hope, that this series gives you a new perspective on different types of housing and what home means to each individual resident.

I Live...

To begin this series I contacted some close friends of mine from college to interview  them about their home. Will and Sonceria Radford, and their three children (one girl and two boys), live in Salemtown, an up-and-coming neighborhood in Nashville. Located just North of Downtown Nashville, Salemtown is a historically black, residential enclave that for years has maintained its obscurity, despite being adjacent to Downtown, employment centers, and interstates that can get you anywhere in the city of Nashville within 15 minutes. It is now seeing new development and residents, and may be on the cusp of gentrifying.

Will and Sonceria chose this neighborhood roughly four years ago and underwent a massive renovation of a historic bungalow. Having always admired their accomplishment, I wanted to make this couple – my friends – the first subjects of the I Live series.

In our interview, I wanted to dive into the issue of gentrification. Gentrification is usually associated with non-minority residents displacing minority residents. Being that the Radford’s are an African-American family in this up-and-coming neighborhood, I was excited to dive into this issue.

We were able to discuss gentrification, but only after taking a long detour during the interview. During that detour, I learned that for Will and Sonceria, their home meant more than just a place live; it instead defined their family, community, and their future. By the time we got back on course, the topic of gentrification surfaced as a by standard to the real topic – the meaning of home.

CitySpeak: So, let’s start with the question - what does this home mean to you?

WillSpeaks: There are a couple of (meanings) – but one of those would be progression. I recall a moment I had with my uncle from Arkansas. When he visited, one of the first things he said was “Jessie Radford (Will’s deceased grandfather) would not believe this.” What he meant was, just to know where we - the family - came from. Knowing the little house our family started in. A one room house that grew into two rooms, then a four and six room home. One of those homes would only take up half the downstairs of this house. So definitely our house symbolizes generational progression. (Building this house) was something that we have done to move our family forward.

SonceriaSpeaks: It reminds me of the power of our community. Let me share about how we even came to get the house. We were looking for a house and Will’s secretary told him about an affordable house in “Germantown” – I knew nothing about Salemtown at the time. I visited the house and the owner was there – Mr. Brown. Mr. Brown was an older black man, who was part of the original community. We talked to Mr. Brown and we decided to put a contract on the house. This is how I think the house reminds me of a community working together. We were in the financing process, and Mr. Brown waited for us to get our financing so we could get the house. Mr. Brown had other contracts, but he waited for us. Then we had close friends who helped us with every phase of the project. We supported each other to carry out this vision, and God put it on their hearts to help us. This house is the manifestation of (our community helping each other).

Will and Sonceria bought a 1925 Queen Anne Victorian that was in dire need of renovation. Will and Sonceria, having studied architectural engineering at Tennessee State University, worked together to design an addition to the house and renovate the original structure. “Oh the design process!” they would both say cringing at the thought of the back and forth collaboration between CAD files on a personal laptop. This idea of building your home with your spouse with your own "four hands" was an awesome feat for the young couple at the time; without the help of the community Will and Sonceria may not have gotten their start.

In our conversation it was clear that Will and Sonceria were proud of being buyers-investors. The couple could have taken a different path, by purchasing a move-in ready home. But the couple took an investment risk in an “up and coming neighborhood” and bought a fixer- upper. The risk was well worth it…

A Home's Worth...

CitySpeak: Not speaking in monetary terms, what is this home worth to you?

WillSpeaks: Our home is worth its function. Our home is custom to what we wanted. Not just any family can come in and buy this home. It’s designed for our family. I walk in this space and it looks like me, and what fit’s my needs. Any subsequent home we buy would have to be 30 percent paid for because I’d have to invest even more money to customize it for my family all over again.

SonceriaSpeaks: (Function), that’s important because our family is bigger than just the five of us. Our family includes our church family. It’s important for us to have our kids and their friends over and sit them at this (custom breakfast nook, where we did the interview) and fit them all at one time. This home has always been about community.


Image Credit: (Credit: Salon/Svinkin via Shutterstock / via

Finally we came to the topic of gentrification. In my studies of gentrification, I’ve learned that it is a dynamic concept, whereby the symptoms and causes are numerous and difficult to quantify; it is difficult to quantify the number of people who are displaced and the reasons for displacement. This is why gentrification is often defined in qualitative terms –changes in the essential character and flavor of a neighborhood, cultural norms, institutions, and demographic population. In popular culture, gentrification is often associated with race, but those that study the subject (including myself) understand that there are also income and educational components as well. Therefore, could an affluent African-American family contribute to gentrification? I explored this question with the Radford’s.

CitySpeak: Do you think that you’ve contributed to the gentrification of this up-and-coming neighborhood? 

WillSpeaks: Yes. When you invest money, you expect a return. Meaning if I purchase a house, I expect to sell it and make a profit. If you expect the same out of an up-and-coming neighborhood, you are a part of the gentrification. I expect, money to multiply. But I must say I am comfortable with the current state of the neighborhood. Meaning, I don’t think that the only way that money can multiply is if the people in the neighborhood change. I don’t think that.

I asked an elderly neighbor down the street, who has a for sale sign in her yard, if she felt forced out, and she said no. She just couldn’t afford to keep up the maintenance. So there are various reasons why people have to move, and it has nothing to do with what goes on in the neighborhood. So goes the pattern of investment, when one has to move on, the house is upgraded and someone else moves in. Its unfortunate, but true. 

SonceriaSpeaks: No. I think it’s the natural progression of a neighborhood to gentrify. But the reason I said “no” is because I’m perfectly fine with what the neighborhood is…the Bloods on 4th (we break into laughter), the water company a few streets away, the Mission. (Ironically) I’m comfortable with that mix. I don’t need Garfield Street to become ‘mixed-use’ or whatever, immediately. I haven’t bought into the “my way now” trend. I appreciate the fact that there is the elderly lady up the street that I’m cordial with from time to time. Also we meet existing residents often and they are common people, nothing to be afraid of.

So therefore, (I believe) that I don’t actively participate in it. I may indirectly participate in it because we have a newer house, but we don’t support initiatives that push people out, or that may change the character of the neighborhood, I don’t support that. I would like to see more resources to help people keep their house up-to-date. For instance, this house had a new roof put on it because of a renovation program for low income residents.

WillSpeaks: And with similar programs, I can help to renovate a home, to assist in someone staying in it. (Note: Will is a commercial – residential contractor).

CitySpeak: So you believe that a mixture of people (income and race) who care about the neighborhood would be beneficial. But then why do our peers who have educational and economic resources stray away from up-and-coming neighborhoods?

SonceriaSpeaks: Lack of vision. People don’t often see the potential in a community or a home, in up –and-coming areas. Some don’t know about the future plans for a community, or they may not understand how equity works. Also (our peers) are used to instant gratification; we don’t want to put work into it, we want the glamour now. And there are very few examples of people who’ve done it, to know that it’s doable.

WillSpeaks: There is very little precedent, and there is some level of ignorance to the tools out there for a young couple. People need to not be on the consumer side, but on the investor/owner side. I see my money more for what I can get, not for what I can buy…there is a difference. For a certain amount of money I can buy anything, but if I take that same amount of money and use it wisely, I can GET so much more.

Will and Sonceria took a risk in an up-an-coming neighborhood, and the reward was great. What they ‘got’ was a home that is the representation of community and generational progression. They are also the manifestation of the goals of anti-poverty programs like HOPE VI (a federal program with the purpose of redeveloping public housing into traditional neighborhoods to disperse poverty). In Salemtown, existing residents benefit from the resources, education, income, of new residents – like the Radfords. This intermingling of socio-economic backgrounds is a noted benefit in many gentrifying communities; particularly when the gentry are minority residents that may help to preserve the character and flavor of a neighborhood. 

That's Right!...

Up and coming neighborhoods may mean location and profit to some; to Will and Sonceria however it also meant ‘community’ and ‘progression’. So while they are a part of the new gentry in the Salemtown neighborhood, it’s their outlook on community that sets them apart…

CitySpeak: So do the kids know that you guys built this house yourself?

WillSpeaks: Oh yea, I tell them all the time - I built the house for mommy! (We break into laughter – again)

CitySpeak: Well I guess you won’t have to worry about your daughter accepting anything less from future boyfriends - I mean you built her Mom a House!

WillSpeaks: That’s right!

That’s right.

Now YouSpeak – would you invest in a fixer upper in an up-and-coming neighborhood?

Authortifinie capehart
CategoriesThe Resident
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My husband often jokes that he would rather live in a ‘real city’ than another “ville”. He associates the tag name ‘ville’ with smaller cities. Meanwhile, he believes that larger cities have cooler, more direct names, like ‘Chicago’, ‘Miami’, ‘New York’. These cities, he believes, also encompass better transit, more culture, and fun neighborhoods. While he is correct that larger cities have better amenities (as our travels to all three of the aforementioned cities have revealed), I believe that the ‘villes’ of the world are also becoming cool cities in their own rite. They too are receiving upgrades in transit, more diverse populations, and better neighborhoods. It is fact that every city has to grow into what it will ultimately become; buildings change uses, people migrate to and from, and transit systems grow. So how does our own city of Nashville, measure up? Is it growing, or staying the same? And how do the residents of this city adapt to the natural growth that will take place? Are Nashvillians ready for their city to become…a City?

Nashville’s Growth


Nashville currently has a train from Lebanon to Nashville. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is proposed along West End – Nashville’s growing employment and retail center. The BRT may have dedicated lanes and platform stops. Other similar bus/transit enhancements are active on Gallatin Pike, and are planned along Murfreesboro Pike, both suburban corridors. When density increases (the number of people working and living along the corridor), a true BRT system with dedicated lanes and platform stops could be a reality on these corridors as well. In other cities transit has boosted economic development around train stops. Cities like Washington DC have been very successful with Transit Oriented Development – residential and commerce have developed around the transit stations boosting employment and residential opportunities for various neighborhoods.

Rendering of the Proposed East West Connector - Bus Rapid Transit Nashville


In the very near future, Nashville will be a majority minority population. Governing magazine reported in a recent article (  that African Americans are migrating to suburbs in large numbers. This is happening across the country and in Nashville. In one of Nashville’s suburban communities the African – American population has increased by 83 percent. Other races and ethnicities are growing as well; Hispanic/Latino population and Other Races (Middle Eastern, etc.) have both increased by over 200 percent.

Density and Housing…

The housing market has changed – baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964), young adults, and people affected by the housing downturn are looking for similar product – rentals and neighborhoods with amenities.  This new product looks like neighborhoods in the Gulch, Germantown, and the suburban version, Lenox Village. Old neighborhoods are becoming new – 12South, North Nashville, East Nashville are going through revitalization as new homes are renovated and new commercial services serve new residents. Get ready too, because suburban areas will see new residents as people look for more affordable housing, near good schools, and open space.

Are you ready?

This is an exciting time for Nashville, but how can you as a current resident, or resident of any ‘Ville for that matter, get ready for changes that your city may see. Here’s my take on how you can embrace the change.

  1. Embrace your new neighbors – They may look a bit different from you. They may be older, younger, and they may not speak English. Despite these differences remember that they want the same things you want – a safe place for their family, and a place to call home. Diversity has its benefits.  In the last several months, my husband and I have had dinner with his business partners who are from India, who are neighbors with a family from Africa. In the Green Hills library (an affluent section of Nashville) my husband helped an older Jewish woman sign up for an over 50 dating site. :) Get ready and embrace diversity – it opens your mind and senses in a way that is rewarding for everyone involved.
  2. Hop on the train, or bus, or trolley - Many great cities have great transit. In many places transit is no longer an amenity, it’s a necessity. Imagine if you could not afford a car – but you could afford a $40 monthly train or bus pass. In many great cities, that’s all many people have. Also think about this, as tourist don’t you love leaving your car at the hotel, and getting around with ease on the transit system? Well think about having that feeling all the time. Leave your car at home, and travel with ease to work and to major events on great transit. If you like that idea, understand this, transit doesn’t just happen, it takes political will, and the will of the people to invest in it. So when the time comes to support transit in your city, hop on board and wiz by the drivers siting in traffic – I promise you – it will feel great.
  3. Say “yes” to great design – When that new apartment building or condo project is planned in your back yard, don’t fight it - work to make it work for you and your neighbors. Everyone needs a place to live. Remember your first apartment out of college, or the studio you lived in as newlyweds? Yes, everyone needs a starting point. The difference however between a really great residential development and a bad one is's the design. Therefore, you should require great design to make sure it fits in with your beloved neighborhood.  Look for pictures of great development online, catalog pictures from vacations to your favorite city. Give them to your political representative, the planners in your city, or the developer. I promise – they will work with you. Request great design, but don’t count out a multi-family project just because it’s not a single family house.

Grow with Nashville…

Great cities don’t just happen - they are grown. Chicago, Miami and New York grew by innovation and residents who supported change.  Mass transit, diversity, and great neighborhoods with housing for everyone, were all on the growth agenda.  If Nashville residents follow the three tips above, then one day you may hop a train, have a conversation with a business man from Latin America, and visit a friend in a new high rise in Midtown. Then there will no doubt that the city of Nashville would have grown into…a City.

Authortifinie capehart
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"Don't call it a comeback - I've been here for years!" I hear LL Cool J yell that iconic hip-hop phrase as I write this blog. A hip-hop battle cry, I picture him, bouncing around the boxing ring, trying to knock out the naysayers who ever said his raps were less than great.  Well I feel the same way. I feel like figuratively knocking out those people who said that this community was and will never be great again. The one's who say "I told you so". Yep I'm planning a comeback.

I'm working in a suburban community in my city. Like other suburban communities across the country, it has been affected by changing demographics and economy. This community has also been affected by negative perception issues charged by several 'high-profile' crime events. Despite this the community is still fighting to improve its stature and to prove that it has never lost its greatness; somehow I to have ended up in the ring.

As planners we use the public engagement process to 1. gather people's input and 2. educate people about good planning principles. But let's also start to think about the engagement process as way to 1. dispel myths and provide facts, 2. garner support for community initiatives, 3. help market an area around something positive such as a planning process. I've find myself doing all of the latter.

I'm fighting myths about dying retail, the location of affordable housing, and socio-economic myths that residents have about each other. In all rounds I've found it hard to keep my balance. Often hit by negative comments from the public or the residents themselves even. But I keep fighting. I fight with facts, examples, and even my own resident-testimony. I never give up the good fight, because if I do, what will that leave? It could leave the City with a community in unrest, still struggling to understand how to move beyond its social ailments. It could leave a community that has yet to reach a consensus about its future - and where there is no vision the people shall perish. It could result in an balanced development pattern that is top heavy on what developers want and lacks what the people want. So I keep fighting.

When you're planning a comeback, that's just what you have to do. As planners sometime we play that role - the battling boxer in a ring, fighting to save the integrity of a community that we know can be great. We began using tools and techniques that help us spread a message that goes beyond land use, but get's into the soul of a community. This is where people live, work, attend school, raise their families, go to church on Sundays and the grocery store on Saturday's - so if we don't fight for them who will?

LL Cool J went on to release 13 albums with his record label. This was a great feat in the volatile world of hip-hop. But those iconic words helped bring him through a legendary rap career. I hope those words allow me to bring this community through a legendary comeback and onward to a sustainable future.

Authortifinie capehart